In preparation for his assault on the Confederate fortress at Vicksburg, Ulysess S. Grant reorganizes his forces into 4 Corps (13th, 15th, 16th, 17th) under John A. McLernand, William T. Sherman, Stephen A. Hurlbut and James B. McPherson respectively
U. S. 15th Corps under William Tecumseh Sherman boards transports at Memphis to sail down the Mississippi to Chickasaw Bayou. Ulysses S. Grant called off a supporting campaign over land because of continued Rebel raids
General John McClernand [US] defeats Brigadier General T. J. Churchill [CS] at Fort Hindman or Arkansas Post. Defending the outpost on the Arkansas River, 5,000 Confederates are surrounded by a force of 50,000 Union troops, and a U. S. Naval squadron under the command of Admiral David Porter. The Navy silenced the Confederate artillery and McClernand attacked, gaining the outer walls. The Confederates then surrendered.
Three Union armies attacked the Army of Tennessee atop Missionary Ridge, east of downtown Chattanooga. Patrick Cleburne stopped William Tecumseh Sherman from the north, although outnumbered 10 to 1. Joe Hooker was seriously delayed by burnt bridges and failed to hit the southern end of Bragg's line near Rossville, Georgia. Thomas' Army of the Cumberland struck the center, breaking Bragg's line and forcing a retreat. Sheridan, ordered to pursue, was stopped dead in his tracks by William Hardee's rear guard action.
William Tecumseh Sherman, meeting with Grant in Nashville, is promoted to Military Division of the Mississippi commanding the Department of the Ohio, Department of the Tennessee, Department of the Cumberland and the Department of the Arkansas. Major General James McPherson is promoted to Sherman's old position, commander of the Army of the Tennessee
In the final battle of the Atlanta Campaign, General William Hardee [CS] attacks O. O. Howard's [US] Army of the Tennessee west of the city of Jonesboro. North of the battle John Schofield cut the Macon and Western at Rough and Ready and Hood's Army was in jeopardy. The battle was joined the second day by large numbers of Union troops. Hardee withdraws at nightfall to join Hood at Lovejoy Station
Some historians use this date as the start of the March to the Sea. By this time Sherman had marched almost 100 miles, destroyed all or part of Rome, Cartersville and Marietta, Georgia and torn up all the Western and Atlanta track between Dalton and Atlanta.
William Hardee, D. H. Hill and A. P. Stewart combine to attack Slocum's wing on the federal advance. In spite of initial gains they are repulsed. Sherman reinforces Slocum on the second day and Slocum nearly enveloped the Confederate forces on the third day.
General William T. Sherman [US] learns of President Johnson's rejection of his surrender terms to Joe Johnston. General Grant, who personally delivered the message, orders Sherman to commence operations against Johnson within 48 hours. Sherman is incensed but obeys orders.
The people of Louisiana were hardly responsible for slavery, as they had inherited it; I found two distinct conditions of slavery, domestic and field hands. The domestic slaves, employed by the families, were probably better treated than any slaves on earth; but the condition of the field-hands was different, depending more on the temper and disposition of their masters and overseers than were those employed about the house. Were I a citizen of Louisiana, and a member of the Legislature, I would deem it wise to bring the legal condition of the slaves more near the status of human beings under all Christian and civilized governments. In the first place, in sales of slaves made by the State, I would forbid the separation of families, letting the father, mother, and children, be sold together to one person, instead of each to the highest bidder. And, again, I would advise the repeal of the statute which enacted a severe penalty for even the owner to teach his slave to read and write, because that actually qualified property and took away a part of its value.