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Ulysses S. Grant
Civil War Encyclopedia >> People - Union Military
April 27, 1822 Hiram Ulysses Grant (General Ulysses S. Grant) born, Point Pleasant, Clermont County, Ohio Ohio
March 3, 1839 Ulysses Hiram Grant appointed to West Point
May 29, 1839 Ulysses Hiram Grant discovers that his appointment to West Point is under the name Ulysses Simpson Grant (Simpson was his mother's maiden name). Grant used this name from this time on.
October 13, 1847 Aztec Club founded by officers who fought in the Mexican-American War
  Joseph Hooker
  John Magruder
  P. G. T. Beauregard
  Robert E. Lee
  Joseph E. Johnston
  George McClellan
  Richard Ewell
July 31, 1861 11 Union officers are submitted to Congress to be promoted to brigadier general
  William B. Franklin
  Samuel Heintzelman
  Joseph Hooker
  William Tecumseh Sherman
July 31, 1861 11 Union officers are submitted to Congress to be promoted to brigadier general
  William B. Franklin
  Samuel Heintzelman
  Joseph Hooker
  William Tecumseh Sherman
August 28, 1861 Ulysses S. Grant is given command of federal forces in Southern Illinois and Southeastern Missouri Missouri
Illinois
September 6, 1861 Grant takes Paducah, Kentucky unopposed Kentucky
November 7, 1861 Battle of Belmont

U. S. Grant [US] defeats Gideon Pillow [CS]. Grant's men are then routed by B. F. Cheatham [CS].

Losses:
U. S. 607
C. S. 641
Missouri
  Gideon Pillow
  Battle of Belmont
  Benjamin Franklin Cheatham
  Leonidas Polk
February 6, 1862 Battle of Fort Henry Kentucky
Tennessee
  Fort Henry and Fort Donelson
February 13, 1862
February 16, 1862
Battle of Ft. Donelson

General Ulysses S. Grant demands the unconditional surrender of the garrison from an old friend, Simon Bolivar Buckner
Tennessee
  Fort Henry and Fort Donelson
  Bloodiest Civil War battles
  John Floyd
  John A. McClernand
  Nathan Bedford Forrest
  Gideon Pillow
  Lew Wallace
  Army of the Tennessee
  Fort Henry and Fort Donelson
  Simon Bolivar Buckner
February 23, 1862 Ulysses S. Grant orders William Nelson to advance on Nashville Tennessee
  William 'Bull' Nelson
  Fall of Nashville, February, 1862
March 4, 1862 Over what is generally regarded as a communication problem, Halleck relieves Grant from command and replaces him with Charles Ferguson Smith.
  Henry Halleck
March 13, 1862 Grant is reinstated to his command
March 17, 1862 Ulysses S. Grant assumes command of the forces at Pittsburg Landing.
  Battle of Shiloh
April 6, 1862
April 7, 1862
Battle of Pittsburg Landing [Union]
Battle of Shiloh [Confederate]

Ulysses S. Grant [US] defeats Albert Sidney Johnston [CS] in southwest Tennessee. P. G. T. Beauregard assumed command following Johnston's death

Confederate Losses
1,723 dead
8,012 wounded
959 missing
Union Losses
1,754 dead
8,408 wounded
2,885 missing
Tennessee
  Sherman's Memoirs on Shiloh
  P. G. T. Beauregard
  Battle of Shiloh
  Braxton Bragg
  William Tecumseh Sherman
  Bloodiest Civil War battles
  Don Carlos Buell
  Albert Sidney Johnston
  John Breckinridge
  William Hardee
  William 'Bull' Nelson
  Lew Wallace
  Lew Wallace at Shiloh
  Army of the Tennessee
  James McPherson
  Army of Mississippi
June 21, 1862 Ulysses S. Grant ordered to Memphis to become district commander Tennessee
July 11, 1862 Ulysses S. Grant [US] ordered to assume command of the Army of the Tennessee, Army of the Mississippi and other western troops.
October 16, 1862 Major General Ulysses S. Grant is given command of the Department of Tennessee. Sometimes listed as Oct. 17.
October 25, 1862 Major General Ulysess S. Grant assumes command of the 13th Army Corps and the Department of Tennessee
November 2, 1862 Ulysses S. Grant begins the First Vicksburg campaign Mississippi
  First Vicksburg Campaign
November 4, 1862 Moving south, east of the Mississippi, Ulysses S. Grant enters La Grange and Grand Junction. Tennessee
  First Vicksburg Campaign
December 11, 1862 One of the most controversial orders of the Civil War is issued by Ulysses S. Grant -- Special Order 11, expelling Jews from his department.
December 11, 1862 Nathan Bedford Forrest [CS] leaves Columbia, Tennessee in an attempt to disrupt Ulysses S. Grant's line of communication in the advance on Vicksburg
  Nathan Bedford Forrest
  First Vicksburg Campaign
December 18, 1862 In preparation for his assault on the Confederate fortress at Vicksburg, Ulysess S. Grant reorganizes his forces into 4 Corps (13th, 15th, 16th, 17th) under John A. McLernand, William T. Sherman, Stephen A. Hurlbut and James B. McPherson respectively
  First Vicksburg Campaign
  William Tecumseh Sherman
January 4, 1863 Lincoln and Halleck order Ulysses S. Grant to rescind Special Order 11
  Henry Halleck
  Abraham Lincoln
February 17, 1863 General Grant rescinds the order halting publication of the Chicago Times as a "copperhead" paper
  copperhead
March 11, 1863 Ulysses S. Grant renewed his efforts to reach Vicksburg when he tried to push gunboats past Fort Pemberton, near Greenwood. General W. W. Loring ("Old Blizzards") had built and manned the fort to prevent attacks of this nature. Mississippi
  Second Vicksburg Campaign
April 22, 1863 Grant's forces south of Vicksburg are resupplied by Porter's fleet, which suffered heavy losses when transports and barges steamed by Confederate batteries
  Second Vicksburg Campaign
  David Porter
April 30, 1863 About noon, Ulysses S. Grant begins crossing the Mississippi and landing U. S. troops south of Vicksburg Mississippi
  Second Vicksburg Campaign
May 19, 1863 General Ulysses S. Grant [US] makes contact with Rear Admiral David Porter, sailing north from New Orleans with supplies Mississippi
  David Porter
  Second Vicksburg Campaign
May 26, 1863
July 4, 1863
Siege of Vicksburg

Date of the start of siege varies from May 18 - May 26.
Mississippi
  William Tecumseh Sherman
  John A. McClernand
  James McPherson
June 18, 1863 Major General John McClernand is relieved of command by Ulysses S. Grant for insubordination
  John A. McClernand
July 3, 1863 John Pemberton, commander of Confederate forces at Vicksburg asks Ulysses S. Grant for terms. Grant demands an unconditional surrender. Pemberton refuses. Late in the evening, Grant offers excellent terms and Pemberton accepts. Mississippi
  Second Vicksburg Campaign
July 4, 1863 Ulysses S. Grant accepts the surrender of the second Confederate Army he has defeated, at Vicksburg Mississippi
  Second Vicksburg Campaign
October 17, 1863 As Ulysses S. Grant travels to Louisville, KY, Secretary of War Edwin Stanton boards the train in Indianapolis, IN with orders for him to assume command of the Military Division of the Mississippi. Indiana
  Edwin Stanton
October 21, 1863 Ulysses S. Grant leaves Bridgeport, AL to assume command of the troops in Chattanooga. The only road in a muddy wash with a horrible stench from the dead mules lying on either side. This was the road Rosecrans was using to supply his troops. Tennessee
  Battles for Chattanooga
October 23, 1863 Ulysess S. Grant arrives in Chattanooga, Tennessee and immediately begins working on securing a better supply line to the city. Tennessee
  Battles for Chattanooga
October 24, 1863 General Grant, in Chattanooga, approves the plan of "Baldy" Smith to open a "Cracker Line" between Chattanooga and the railhead at Stevenson, Alabama Alabama
Tennessee
  Battles for Chattanooga
  William Farrar Smith
  Cracker Line
November 15, 1863 Moving east from the Mississippi, General William Tecumseh Sherman arrives in Stevenson, Alabama with four divisions. Sherman then confers with Grant in Chattanooga. Alabama
Tennessee
  William Tecumseh Sherman
November 23, 1863 Action at Orchard Knob, Chattanooga Tennessee
  Battles for Chattanooga
  George Thomas
  Philip Sheridan
November 24, 1863 Battle of Lookout Mountain
Battle Above the Clouds

Joseph Hooker [US] engages forces under Carter Stevenson [CS] on the slopes of Lookout Mountain
Tennessee
Georgia
  Battles for Chattanooga
  Joseph Hooker
  Braxton Bragg
November 25, 1863 Battle of Missionary Ridge, Chattanooga

Three Union armies attacked the Army of Tennessee atop Missionary Ridge, east of downtown Chattanooga. Patrick Cleburne stopped William Tecumseh Sherman from the north, although outnumbered 10 to 1. Joe Hooker was seriously delayed by burnt bridges and failed to hit the southern end of Bragg's line near Rossville, Georgia. Thomas' Army of the Cumberland struck the center, breaking Bragg's line and forcing a retreat. Sheridan, ordered to pursue, was stopped dead in his tracks by William Hardee's rear guard action.
Tennessee
Georgia
  Battles for Chattanooga
  Braxton Bragg
  John Breckinridge
  George Thomas
  Philip Sheridan
  Army of the Cumberland
  William Tecumseh Sherman
  Patrick Cleburne
  Joseph Hooker
  William Hardee
  Army of Tennessee
November 28, 1863 Ulysses S. Grant orders William Tecumseh Sherman to advance on Knoxville and relieve Ambrose Burnside Tennessee
  Ambrose Burnside
  Siege of Knoxville
  William Tecumseh Sherman
February 1, 1864 The U. S. House passes legislation reinstituting the rank of Lieutenant General in the United States Army.
March 2, 1864 U. S. Senate confirms Ulysses S. Grant as Lieutenant General
March 9, 1864 Ulysses S. Grant promoted to Lieutenant General and given command of all active United States forces.
  General-in-Chief, U. S. Army
March 10, 1864 Grant meets George Gordon Meade, commander of the Army of the Potomac, in Virginia.
  George Meade
March 12, 1864 Three days after it happened, the order making Lieutenant General Grant general-in-chief is announced. General Henry Halleck is relieved of duty at his own request.
  Henry Halleck
  General-in-Chief, U. S. Army
  Army of the Potomac
March 12, 1864 Lt. General Ulysses S. Grant assumes command of the armies of the United States. Tennessee
March 17, 1864 William Tecumseh Sherman, meeting with Grant in Nashville, is promoted to Military Division of the Mississippi commanding the Department of the Ohio, Department of the Tennessee, Department of the Cumberland and the Department of the Arkansas. Major General James McPherson is promoted to Sherman's old position, commander of the Army of the Tennessee Tennessee
  William Tecumseh Sherman
  James McPherson
  Army of the Tennessee
April 9, 1864 Ulysses S. Grant issues campaign orders. He tells George Meade [US], "Wherever Lee goes, you will go there." Similar orders are issued to William Tecumseh Sherman
  George Meade
  William Tecumseh Sherman
April 17, 1864 Ulysses S. Grant ends prisoner exchanges with the South. He felt the practice was '...prolonging the conflict"
April 27, 1864 Northern armies break winter camp in preparation for the Spring campaigns
  William Tecumseh Sherman
  Overland Campaign
  George Meade
  Atlanta Campaign
May 5, 1864
May 7, 1864
Battle of the Wilderness

Ulysses S. Grant [US] is badly beaten on the field by Robert E. Lee [CS] but rather than retreat, Grant advances to Spotsylvania Court House.

Union: 17,666

Confederate: 7,750
Virginia
  Bloodiest Civil War battles
  Robert E. Lee
  Army of Northern Virginia
  Overland Campaign
  James Longstreet
  Winfield Scott Hancock
  A. P. Hill
  Richard Ewell
  Gouverneur K. Warren
  John Sedgwick
May 8, 1864
May 19, 1864
Battle of Spotsylvania Court House

In an inconclusive battle, General Ulysses S. Grant [US] and Robert E. Lee [CS] battle for days southwest of Fredericksburg

Union 18,399
Confederate 9,000
Virginia
  Robert E. Lee
  Bloodiest Civil War battles
  Army of Northern Virginia
  Overland Campaign
  Richard Ewell
May 31, 1864
June 12, 1864
Battle of Cold Harbor

Robert E. Lee [CS] defeats General Ulysses S. Grant [US] and General George Meade [US]
Virginia
  Army of Northern Virginia
  Robert E. Lee
  George Meade
  Gouverneur K. Warren
June 12, 1864 Finally admitting defeat at Cold Harbor, Ulysses S. Grant begins crossing the James River Virginia
  Army of the Potomac
June 15, 1864
April 2, 1865
Siege of Petersburg Virginia
  Robert E. Lee
  P. G. T. Beauregard
  Army of Northern Virginia
  Siege of Petersburg
June 15, 1864 Battle of Petersburg

William F. Smith [US] and Winfield Scott Hancock [US], with a combined army of nearly 30,000 men are held off by General P. G. T. Beauregard with about 4,000 men. Union force only gain Battery No. 5 and about a mile of the Dimmock Line
Virginia
  Siege of Petersburg
  Robert E. Lee
  P. G. T. Beauregard
  Winfield Scott Hancock
  William Farrar Smith
September 16, 1864 Meeting in Charles Town, Ulysses S. Grant and Phil Sheridan discuss the problems in the Shenandoah Valley with Jubal Early's [CS] Corps West Virginia
  Jubal Anderson Early
  Philip Sheridan
March 2, 1865 Robert E. Lee sends a message to Ulysess S. Grant asking for a conference to "iron out differences" between the North and the South.
  Robert E. Lee
March 3, 1865 Abraham Lincoln issues instructions on surrender discussions. He gives Grant wide-ranging powers on military matters, but reserves political matters for himself
  Abraham Lincoln
March 27, 1865 Lincoln held a council of war with Ulysses S. Grant, William Tecumseh Sherman, and David Porter on the River Queen at City Point
  Abraham Lincoln
  William Tecumseh Sherman
  David Porter
March 30, 1865 As Ulysses S. Grant extends his lines east of Richmond, Phil Sheridan's cavalry, along with some infantry support, come in contact with the Confederate right flank at Dinwiddie Court House.
  Philip Sheridan
April 7, 1865 Grant begans communication with Lee known as the "Surrender Letters." Virginia
  Surrender Letters
  Robert E. Lee
April 9, 1865 After attempting to break-out of the Union envelopment, Robert E. Lee surrenders the Army of Northern Virginia to Ulysess S. Grant at the home of Wilmer McLean in Appomattox Court House Virginia
  Robert E. Lee
  Appomattox (or Appomattox Court House)
  Battle of Appomattox
  Surrender At Appomattox
  George Armstrong Custer
  James Longstreet
  Edward O. C. Ord
July 25, 1866 Congress establishes "general of the armies" and Ulysses S. Grant is immediately promoted to 4-star general and put in this position. William Tecumseh Sherman assumes the rank of Lt. General.
  General-in-Chief, U. S. Army
  William Tecumseh Sherman
August 12, 1867 Ulysses S. Grant becomes ad interim Secretary of War
May 20, 1868
May 21, 1868
Republican Convention nominates Ulysses S. Grant to run for President of the United States and Schuyler Colfax as Vice-president
  Election of 1868
  Republican Party
November 3, 1868 Ulysses S. Grant elected President of the United States
  Election of 1868
July 15, 1869 President Grant issues Presidential Proclamation Submitting the Texas Constitution to the Voters Texas
December 20, 1869 President Grant appoints Edwin Stanton a justice of the Supreme Court.
  Edwin Stanton
March 30, 1870 President Grant approves Texas congressional representation once the decree has been announced Texas
December 9, 1875 Secretary of the Treasury Benhamin H. Bristow breaks the Whiskey Ring. Businessmen and IRS officials used whiskey tax in Grant's reelection campaign.
May 10, 1876 Centenial exhibit opens with remarks by President Ulysses S. Grant in Philadelphia Pennsylvania


Ulysses S. Grant

According to American Heritage magazine "U. S." Grant was "...the supreme Union hero of the Civil War, but Grant's success on the battlefield was neither a good predictor or indicator...he weathered serious problems, both personal and professional, both before and after the war."

The call for volunteers following the attack on Fort Sumter in 1861 drew 38-year-old "Sam" Grant out of near poverty. The West Point graduate had abandoned the military when a superior officer discovered him drunk on duty. Returning to his wife's family farm near St. Louis, Missouri, Grant began working the fields during the day and finishing the house at night. The farm was almost profitable, but when things got bad he would cut a tree or two and sell the firewood on the streets of St. Louis.

After trying various careers, Grant turned to his father, who employed him as a clerk in his leather shop. Abraham Lincoln's call for men seemed to revitalize Captain Grant. Hired as an adjutant, Grant appealed to George McClellan for a job. McClellan, who was commander of the Department of Ohio, refused to see him. Grant wound up a colonel in the Illinois state militia, leading the 21st Volunteer regiment. That August he was placed in charge of all troops in southern Illinois and eastern Missouri.

As Union military commanders were pushing the President for more time, Sam Grant began what would be a circuitous route to the White House by taking a couple of small towns on the Ohio River in response to Gideon Pillow's seizure of Columbus, Kentucky. Less than five months later Grant defeated Pillow, John Floyd and Simon Bolivar Buckner at Fort Donelson on the Cumberland River just south of the Kentucky/Tennessee border. He then returned to the Tennessee River and followed it south to Pittsburg Landing. Deploying his raw recruits for training rather than defense, Grant's men were subject to a surprise attack on April 6, 1862. The Battle of Shiloh saw the loss of more men in a single day than in any other battle in history.

Just over a year later, on July 9, 1863 Grant secured Port Hudson, opening up the Mississippi to Union shipping. 5 days earlier he accepted the surrender of John Pemberton's army following the Siege of Vicksburg. Abraham Lincoln called Grant to Washington, but wanted him to make a small stop on the way, at Chattanooga, Tennessee. There Grant, along with his old friend William Tecumseh Sherman and Joseph Hooker, rescued the Army of the Cumberland, briefly replacing William Rosecrans as the army's commander. A few months later Lincoln promoted him to Lieutenant General and put him in command of all the armies (General-in-Chief, U. S. Army). Grant plunged into Virginia while General Sherman executed the longest pincer movement in history...some 700 miles. With his Army of Northern Virginia surrounded, Robert E. Lee had no choice but to surrender to Grant.

Less than a week after the surrender, a pleased Lincoln invited Grant and his wife to a play at Ford's Theater. Julia Grant, however, wanted to get back to her children so Ulysses declined. It was a lucky move since Lincoln was assassinated that evening and Grant was on John Wilkes Booth's "hit list."

President Andrew Johnson and General Grant didn't really see eye-to-eye. Grant had given amicable terms to the surrendering Rebels but Johnston want to charge Lee with treason. Lee appealed to Grant to honor his terms of surrender and Grant threatened to take his case to the people. Johnson already had serious problems with Congress and decided to side-step the issue.

In the Election of 1868 the Republican Party decided to run Grant for President. A harsh campaign saw the General beat Horatio Seymour, a rumored "Copperhead," by 300,000 votes. Facing the new President was both the reconstruction of a nation and the Reconstruction of the South, a burdensome war debt and the westward push of our nation.

Links appearing on this page:

Abraham Lincoln
American Heritage
Andrew Johnson
Army of Northern Virginia
Army of the Cumberland
Battle of Shiloh
Election of 1868
Fort Donelson
Fort Sumter
General-in-Chief, U. S. Army
George McClellan
John Floyd
Joseph Hooker
Pittsburg Landing
Robert E. Lee
Siege of Vicksburg
Simon Bolivar Buckner
William Rosecrans
William Tecumseh Sherman

Civil War Encyclopedia >> People - Union Military

Ulysses S. Grant was last changed on - November 1, 2006
Ulysses S. Grant was added in 2005



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