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February 19, 1861 Jefferson Davis appoints his Cabinet including fireeater Robert Toombs (State), Christopher Memminger (Treasury), LeRoy Pope Walker (War), Judah P. Benjamin (Attorney-General) and J. H. Reagan (Postmaster-General).
  Jefferson Davis
  Robert Toombs

"Fire-eaters" was a name ascribed to outspoken Southern nationalists (supporters of "disunion," or an independent Southern nation). At first pro-nationalist thought centered around high tariffs, specifically the Tariff of Abominations that led to the Nullification Crisis. Following the repeated introduction of the Wilmot Proviso in the House of Representatives in the late 1840's, the most common spark of Southern nationalism was slavery.

In 1850 the Nashville Convention was called in hopes that Calhoun's nationalistic movement would catch on, but failed in part because of Calhoun's death, in part because of the success of the Compromise of 1850. It marked the earliest nationalistic efforts of the fire-eaters. Following the Compromise of 1850 the role of the fire-eaters lessened, but John C. Fremont's run for President on the Republican ticket in the Election of 1856, the Underground Railroad, the strongly pro-Republican elections of 1858 and John Brown's Raid on Harper's Ferry all rekindled calls for an independent South. The Dred Scot decision seemed to quench the South's thirst for independence, at least briefly.

Following Brown's Raid on Harper's Ferry, the power of the fire-eaters increased dramatically. Led by the Charleston Mercury (it was owned by fire-eater Barnwell Rhett), fire-eaters became more radical in their speeches, some even suggesting war as the only way to gain Southern independence.

At the 1860 Democratic National Convention held in Charleston, South Carolina, fire-eaters conspired to divide the Democratic Party. They were convinced that the only way to achieve Southern Nationalism was by ensuring the election of a "Black Republican." Under Robert Barnwell Rhett's encouragement, William Lowndes Yancey added the old Alabama Platform as a plank in the majority Democratic platform in committee. Douglas supporters replaced it with the Cincinnati Platform on the floor of the convention. At this point, leading the entire delegations of six states and some from Georgia, Yancey walked off the floor.

By mid-October almost all fire-eaters were convinced that Abraham Lincoln would be elected president of the United States and began speaking on the future of the South under an abolitionist president, although some did not believe Lincoln would free the slaves. They spoke out against other Republicans such as William Seward, who they believe would have freed the slaves.

Men to whom the term commonly applied include Robert Barnwell Rhett, Edmund Ruffin, Robert Toombs, Louis Trezevant Wigfall, and William Yancey. The term appears to have come from Thomas Hart Benton's comment on the floor of the Senate, labeling John C. Calhoun a firebrand. Northern papers altered this, calling any Southern Nationalist, including Calhoun, a fire-eater.

Fire-eater was also the name of General Albert Sidney Johnston's horse.

Links appearing on this page:

1860 Democratic National Convention
Abraham Lincoln
Albert Sidney Johnston
Compromise of 1850
Dred Scot decision
Edmund Ruffin
Election of 1856
Harper's Ferry
John Brown
John C. Calhoun
John C. Fremont
Nashville Convention
Nullification Crisis
Robert Barnwell Rhett
South Carolina
William Seward
Wilmot Proviso

Civil War Encyclopedia >> Terms

Fire-eaters was last changed on - November 26, 2006
Fire-eaters was added in 2005

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