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Army of the Cumberland
October 24, 1862 The XIV Corps, better known as the Army of the Cumberland, is created from the Army of the Ohio.
  Army of the Ohio
October 30, 1862 Major General William Rosecrans assumes command of the Army of the Cumberland
  William S. Rosecrans
December 31, 1862 Battle of Stone's River [US]
Battle of Murfreesboro [CS]

Braxton Bragg forces William Rosecrans to retreat, but Rosecrans returns to defeat Bragg on January 2, 1863.

Union 13,249

Confederate 10,266
Tennessee
  Bloodiest Civil War battles
  Braxton Bragg
  William S. Rosecrans
  George Thomas
  John Breckinridge
  Philip Sheridan
  Stone's River
January 7, 1863 The XIV Corps is officially renamed to the Army of the Cumberland
June 23, 1863 Army of the Cumberland begins the Tullahoma Campaign against the Army of Tennessee Tennessee
Georgia
  Tullahoma Campaign
  Leonidas Polk
  Braxton Bragg
  William S. Rosecrans
August 29, 1863 The Army of the Cumberland begins the Chickamauga Campaign, heading east for passes in Lookout Mountain Alabama
Georgia
  Chickamauga Campaign
September 9, 1863 Federal troops enter Chattanooga, Tennessee following its evacuation by the Army of Tennessee Tennessee
  Chickamauga Campaign
  Braxton Bragg
  Army of Tennessee
September 19, 1863
September 20, 1863
Battle of Chickamauga

General Braxton Bragg [CS] tries to split General William Rosecrans [US] forces as they try to return to the safety of Chattanooga. A second day breakthrough at the Brotherton Cabin forces the federals into a retreat, halted only by the Rock of Chickamauga, General George Thomas on Snodgrass Hill

The bloodiest two days in American history cost the Federals 1,657 dead, 9,756 wounded, and 4,757 missing for a total of 16,170 casualties out of 58,000 troops. The Confederate losses were 2,312 dead, 14,674 wounded and 1,468 for a total of 18,545 out of 66,000 troops.
Georgia
  Gordon Granger
  Bloodiest Civil War battles
  William S. Rosecrans
  Braxton Bragg
  George Thomas
  John Bell Hood
  Philip Sheridan
  Nathan Bedford Forrest
  Lafayette McLaws
  Battle of Chickamauga
  James Garfield
  Leonidas Polk
  Daniel Harvey Hill
  James Longstreet
  Chickamauga Campaign
September 23, 1863 President Lincoln orders the 11th and 12th Corps to Stevenson, Alabama to relieve the Army of the Cumberland surrounded in Chattanooga.
  Abraham Lincoln
  Battles for Chattanooga
October 5, 1863 Joe Wheeler cuts the railroad between Nashville and Chattanooga at Stones River. The loss is a major blow to the besieged Army of the Cumberland. Tennessee
  Battles for Chattanooga
October 19, 1863 William Rosecrans is relieved of duty. General Grant replaces him as commander of the Army of the Cumberland with George Thomas
  William S. Rosecrans
  George Thomas
November 25, 1863 Battle of Missionary Ridge, Chattanooga

Three Union armies attacked the Army of Tennessee atop Missionary Ridge, east of downtown Chattanooga. Patrick Cleburne stopped William Tecumseh Sherman from the north, although outnumbered 10 to 1. Joe Hooker was seriously delayed by burnt bridges and failed to hit the southern end of Bragg's line near Rossville, Georgia. Thomas' Army of the Cumberland struck the center, breaking Bragg's line and forcing a retreat. Sheridan, ordered to pursue, was stopped dead in his tracks by William Hardee's rear guard action.
Tennessee
Georgia
  Ulysses S. Grant
  Battles for Chattanooga
  Braxton Bragg
  John Breckinridge
  George Thomas
  Philip Sheridan
  William Tecumseh Sherman
  Patrick Cleburne
  Joseph Hooker
  William Hardee
  Army of Tennessee
May 4, 1864 The final Spring Campaign of the Civil War began as the Army of the Potomac crossed the Rapidan River in Virginia and three smaller armys (Ohio, Tennessee and Cumberland) pushed deeper into Georgia. Georgia
Virginia
  Army of the Potomac
  Army of the Tennessee
  Army of the Ohio


Army of the Cumberland

The Army of the Cumberland existed twice, in the early days of the war, then again in early 1863 after William S. Rosecrans took command of the Army of Ohio from Don Carlos Buell.

Abraham Lincoln had not been happy with Buell since the Battle of Shiloh, when he showed up late on the first day. When advancing towards Chattanooga in June, 1862, Buell tried to hold a line nearly 400 miles long. Braxton Bragg and the Army of Mississippi and E. Kirby Smith and the Army of Kentucky easily sidestepped Buell, nearly cutting his line of supply to Louisville in the Confederate Invasion of Kentucky. When 20 officers wrote complaining of Buell to the President, Lincoln offered the job of commander to George Thomas who refused.

Following Perryville, Lincoln offered the job to William S. Rosecrans, who accepted. The Army of the Cumberland, essentially the renamed Army of the Ohio, was formed the following day. Rosecrans moved south, where he met Bragg's Confederates when they attacked near Murfreesboro, Tennessee in the Battle of Stone's River. Two field commanders, Thomas and Phillip Sheridan, played pivotal roles in the success of the Army of the Cumberland that day. Sheridan rallied his men against a good part of Bragg's army, only pulling back when his division had been decimated, and Thomas, who held the center of the Army of the Cumberland's line in spite of having both flanks turned.

After a day's rest, the Army of the Cumberland returned to battle and drove the Army of Tennessee south of the Duck River. With both armies reeling from the great loss at Stone's River they resupplied for the next six months. Finally, in June, 1863 Rosecrans began the Tullahoma Campaign that ended with his army in Stevenson, Alabama and eyeing the prize of Chattanooga. Col. John Wilder conceived a ruse where his men would move northeast of Chattanooga, act as if the Union were massing a second army and force Bragg to retreat. Bragg fell for Wilder's trick and at the start of September, 1863, Rosecrans entered Georgia. Yet the very reason why Bragg retreated made it dangerous for Rosecrans to occupy the city - it was a nightmare to defend.

The entrance to Georgia from the northwest is guarded by a series of high plateau topped ridges, most famous of which is Lookout Mountain. Rather than concentrate his forces in Chattanooga, Rosecrans decided to pierce the mountains through their gaps, often being forced to build roads as they advanced. Rosecrans was hoping to get through the mountain passes safely, then use Chattanooga to supply his army. The Union commander never got the chance.

On September 19, 1863, Bragg launched an attack against the Army of the Cumberland that resulted in the worst defeat in U. S. Army history, the Battle of Chickamauga. After being routed and contained in Chattanooga, Rosecrans had serious doubts about maintaining both his position and his army. To rescue the beleaguered Yankees, Lincoln sent "Fighting Joe" Hooker, William Tecumseh Sherman and General Ulysses S. Grant to take overall command. In late November, 1863, the Union Army broke the Army of the Cumberland, now under the command of George Thomas, out of Chattanooga.

During the Atlanta Campaign, Thomas took the Army of the Cumberland through Northwest Georgia and on to Atlanta. Almost singlehandedly, the Army of the Cumberland battled the Confederates at the "doors of death." Joe Johnston had five months to entrench and the result made Sherman, Thomas's new commander, wary of a frontal assault near Dalton, Georgia. At the battle of Resaca,

Links appearing on this page:

"Fighting Joe" Hooker
Abraham Lincoln
Army of Mississippi
Atlanta Campaign
Battle of Shiloh
Battle of Stone's River
Braxton Bragg
Confederate Invasion of Kentucky
Don Carlos Buell
E. Kirby Smith
George Thomas
Georgia
Joe Johnston
June, 1862
November, 1863
Phillip Sheridan
September 19
September, 1863
Tullahoma Campaign
Ulysses S. Grant
William S. Rosecrans
William Tecumseh Sherman

Army of the Cumberland was last changed on - January 1, 2009
Army of the Cumberland was added in 2005





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